“The modern athletics comes from the sports practiced in antiquity, including the Olympics. King Henry II of England (1154/1189) was probably one of the first athletes of modern times. From the twelfth century, we find indeed, England, athletic games descriptions charged by Londoners;. we also know that King Henry II had been installed on the outskirts of the capital, sports grounds where he often went But athletics as a sport has gradually formed in Britain in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century and the first decades of the nineteenth century. ” Encyclopedia Bordas
Most universal sport, athletics has long limited to a duel between the United States and Europe. In the 1970s and especially in 1980, the USSR and the countries of Eastern Europe – the GDR in mind – made a strong entry into the charts. The most serious doubts were expressed today about the training and preparation methods that were practiced there.
Africa has made a first international breakthrough at the Olympic Games in Rome in 1956. Later, his athletes have gradually imposed in the distance races and middle distance, which revealed several exceptional champions generations, Ethiopian, Kenyan and Moroccan and Algerian.
Today, the face of world athletics tends to simplify. In men, the color of athletes ensure US supremacy in the sprint that only sometimes succeed in their challenge other athletes of color, Canadian, British or Caribbean origin: Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies French. The shots, however, reveal a more diverse, especially with the presence of Germans, Russians, Czechs and Hungarians. In women, the Americans also dominate the sprint, but European countries, those in Africa and Australia have many champions in other types of tests.
Diet for Athletics
In sports nutrition, the carbohydrates are the staple diet. It takes a lot for them in reserve is limited. They prevent hypoglycemia. They can also replace lipids at any time as an energy source. After being ingested, they concentrate in the liver and muscles as glycogen. When the muscle and liver glycogen stores are filled to the maximum, athletes perform better, because it is the most readily available source of energy during exercise. This is why carbohydrates should be part of the menu before, during and after exercise and should represent 55% to 60% of total calories ingested.
Carbohydrates are either complex or fast. The first, also called “sugars” are the main source of energy in the body. We are also associated with low glycemic index foods. Without these complex carbohydrates, it would not go away … As they are absorbed slowly into the body, they provide energy over a longer period, unlike sugars (candy, cake, chocolate, honey, maple syrup, fruit juice, etc.) that provide energy on the field, but very short.
The protein must also be part of the base of the sport, but in smaller quantities than carbohydrates. They also promote the stability of energy. Not insignificantly, they also contribute to the maintenance of tissues, including muscle fibers. Many protein foods also contain fats (lipids) we want to avoid (see next rule). We must therefore find protein sources low in fat.
Whether it is good or bad fat, it is best to limit consumption before and during physical activity. Lipids indeed require a long digestion time – a laborious digestion along with an intense effort is the best recipe for undergoing gastric discomfort. For the same reason, it is best not to eat very spicy foods or cause flatulence. However, in the hours after exercise, it is entirely appropriate to take good fats like olive or canola oil, nuts and seeds.
The roles of water
Water is a nutrient carrier. She carries carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals to use sites. It often drink because you cannot make reservations.
It also serves as a lubricant , including ensuring a smooth sliding between different tissues (eg. Synovial fluid in the knee).
It plays a role of heat sink by dissipating the heat produced by the evaporation of sweat.
Water helps prevent performance losses caused by dehydration. It maintains the body temperature , provides electrolytes and carbohydrates when it adds, for example when making a rehydration drink.
Since exercise alters the mechanism of thirst , so do not wait until thirsty to drink. The thirst reflex is often triggered when we are already dehydrated to 1% or 2%, already at this stage, our performance may be reduced by 10%.
How much water to drink?
For the amount of water to be taken before and during exercise, you must first assess the losses incurred during the activity that we are about to do. Here’s how:
- Weigh yourself before and after exercise (eg before 69 kg, after 67 kg).
- Record the amount of water drunk during exercise (eg 1 liter).
- The weight lost during exercise is the amount of water lost
(69 kg – 67 kg = 2 kg = a loss of 2 liters of water).
- The quantity of water to drink corresponds to:
the amount of water drunk + the amount equivalent to the loss
(1 L + 2 liters = 3 liters).
What to drink before, during and after exercise?
Prefer the water and avoid excessive caffeine limiting its consumption of tea, coffee, soft drinks or energy drinks containing caffeine. This can have a dehydrating effect if you drink more than 550 mg per day, equivalent to about 4 cups of coffee a day.
Activity 1 hour or less: drink water in nature.
Activity or training during 1 pm to 3 pm: drink a drink containing sugar (no more than 8 grams of carbohydrates per 100 ml).
Activity or training for more than 3 hours : drink a drink containing sugar and a little salt (for sodium). Note that sodium and potassium in re hydration drink are not necessary if physical activity lasts less than 3 to 4 hours, unless the sweating caused by physical activity is excessive.
What can I do to help my young athlete to absorb what it needs?
Meal planning helps to ensure that your young athlete consumes what it needs, especially when preparing for an athletic event.
Before the event:
Meals should include sources of carbohydrates, protein and fat contents;
The fiber intake should be limited;
Avoid meals high in fat because they can give him a feeling of fatigue.
Mealtime is capital. Your athlete should:
Eat a meal at least 3 hours before an event to digest well and avoid intestinal upsets during the event.
Have a snack or a liquid meal 1 to 2 hours before a workout or event that occurs early in the morning, then a full lunch after the event.
Have a snack or a liquid meal for 1 to 2 hours before a game to have the time to digest it.
Use sports drinks, fruit or granola bars to maintain a high energy level during an event.
Nutritional guidance to athletes
Sport is good for health! We keep repeating and rightly because beyond caloric expenditure (count an average of 300 kcal per hour), it maintains the vitality of the cardiovascular system, respiratory and joint. Clearly, it reduces the risk of developing heart disease or cancer. See how, by suitable feeding behavior, can optimize their health and performance.
Let those who are not athletes do not lament if: regular physical activity as well. Walking 30 minutes a day, at least, is also a great way to treat the health of her heart and body in general. The key is to fight against the sedentary lifestyle that is known is, by itself, a true factor of cardiovascular risk. The “completely sedentary” are more exposed to overweight the infarction, the cerebral accidents and cancers.
Now About Nutrition
The practice of regular physical activity (even daily) requires no special nutritional advice except to eat healthy and balanced. However, it is not the same for a top athlete. His body is subject to intense and requires specific nutritional levels for that performance with go! Here helpful advice, especially in this period rich in sporting events: Tennis Tournament French Open Championship Europe Football Semi-marathons and marathons).
The nutritional needs of high-level sports: The needs for energy are high. On the basis of caloric expenditure of 300 kcal / hour of sport for a woman and 500 Kcal / hour for a man, one can estimate that a sports woman driving at least 8 hours per week should consume each day around 2500 Kcal (instead of 1800 Kcal / day for a sedentary woman) and a man nearly 3000 3 500 kcal / day (instead of between 2 200 and 2500 Kcal / day for a sedentary man). These calories are provided by the carbohydrates (carbohydrates, sugars), the lipids (fats) and proteins. For endurance sports (marathon, for example), the share of carbohydrates (these are the fuel) will be particularly important while for strength sports (bodybuilding), we will increase the intake of proteins that help the development of muscular mass.